The radios years 70

Since the home page is cited the experience of the Italian free radio of the 70s and it is clear, this will not be a mere protocol but, rather, About a RaRa Radio. To better understand what is meant is therefore useful to talk about the phenomenon of free radios that have enriched the social context of those years and to do so just bring the excellent summary that BroadcastItalia He reported on its portal and which is proposed here in its entirety.

Since the mid-60s was mounting across Europe in young people a desire to radio, understood as an entertainment source, music and even information not controlled by governments. In European country leaders then in freedom and morals progress, Great Britain, this desire had been satisfied by the so-called pirate radio (Radio Caroline, Radio Veronica) and the same thing happened in other countries of Northern Europe.

Rai, in Italy responded to this need by launching to its programming, much of "programs rupture" with conventional programming plaster: shows such as Yellow Flag, For you young, high rating, Hit-Parade, Supersonic, They are still alive in the memories of today's 50s. As indeed did the BBC with historical musical broadcasts Ready Steady Go!, Saturday Club o Top Of The Pops.

A second opportunity for Italian boys was represented by two foreign radio stations that broadcast in Italian, and that they had started a program geared to young people and music, with a dynamic language and entirely new, was Radio Montecarlo (which broadcasts from March 1966 by the Principality of Monaco, directed by Noel Coutisson with the deejay microphones that would be imitated for the next 30 years, as the great Herbert Pagani, Robertino, Federico Flying Dutchman, Awanagana, luisella Berrino). Only major limitation of Radio Montecarlo, broadcast on medium wave, with a powerful transmitter, and, but only admissible on the Tyrrhenian coast of our country. Together with Radio Koper (on the side istrano), It was a radio, which proposed a new style of leadership, lively, broke into the rhythm, it would be then absorbed by RAI with the famous Supersonic program

Apart from these two realities "abnormal" , There was also something that the official radio could not afford afford or only partially, two-way communication through the synergy with the phone: except perhaps a unique case: “Call Roma 3131”, but where things like "I dedicate this record to Mary with love, or to Nonna Pina because heal quickly "were not allowed.

In the early 70s they created the conditions for private radio stations in the main European countries, with Italy in the first row by number of issuers and number of listeners . This was followed by the harsh protests by 68 'and then the 72, years in which the working and youthful voice fecere tremble and fall several governments. In the claims of those years there was a great desire for growth of individual freedom, and today we can say, also the desire to be able to choose independently the sources of information.

since 1974 the attack on the monopoly in Italy was in the air, and many workers were preparing to defy the law and wedged in its contradictions. The first ever to start broadcasting was radio Parma, il 1 January 1975. Protagonists of the historical initiative were Virgilio Menozzi, the entrepreneur who financed the adventure (then protagonist of the birth of Radio Roma), the journalist Carlo Drapkind who was the managing editor and amateur expert Parma Marco Toni who edited and designed the technical part, putting into operation a relatively limited power transmitter (22W) but enough to cover most of the Emilian city. the schedule, as for all the radio of the early days, It was very comprehensive and the debtor RAI model, with information programs, insights and local news. By Radio Parma microphones have come out a few players who then made a career in other radios or other areas, Gabriele Majo or Mauro Coruzzi, who became famous, not only in the world of radio, under the name and disguise Platinette. Thirty years later Parma Radio has broadcast, although with properties, office and schedule completely different from its origins.

Follow Radio Milano International (March 1975) and Radio Roma (16 June 1975). Three radio stations that continue to transmit even today, with different name (Radio Milano International is now Radio 101 One O One) and some problems for Radio Rome. Also worth mentioning, among the pioneers, Radio and Bologna, in television, Tele Biella, who performed both attempts during the 1974).

In few years, or maybe a few months, all frequencies available, at least in the big cities, They were occupied by dozens of independent radio stations, indeed it was not frequently the case of frequencies occupied by two radii, radio that transmitted deliberately outside the rules, in sovramodulazione, to overtake other nearby radio and, even in contiguous area, They transmitted on the same frequency.

To cover the course briefcase music was crucial. It would have been difficult to fill the schedule only with self-produced broadcasts, with journalistic investigations or any other types of transmissions typically it made the state radio, so the schedule of free radio was essentially consists of music of various genres and styles, structured by heading (the rubric of classical music and jazz, the unfailing lyrical music directory, and so on), both naturally rock, many songwriters, and the music of the moment.

Until the ruling 202/1976 Constitutional Court (28 July 1976) The transmitted radio using a broad interpretation of the law then in force (the 103/1975) and then they were exposed to complaints and seizures. Despite what many transmitted radio regularly, e a Roma a fine 1975 were already present at least 11 radio.

The cost of a plant in accordance with transmission and quality (transmitter within the standards, adequate power, stereo output) He could get around 50 million lire of then, but using electronic equipment (at times of military origin) or adapted or limiting the power you could also start with 5 millions. The exercise could cost around 5-10 million per month, in the case of rare radio retribuivano employees. For radio with cheapest plants, hosted at various venues (for example parishes or party sections) and the use of volunteer could come down a lot in the initial and recurring costs.

That season was celebrated by the song by Eugenio Finardi “Radio”, which emphasized the radio as a free information tool “non-invasive”, and he expressed enthusiasm for a new communication tool. The same season celebrated films from Luciano Ligabue “Radiofreccia”.

The selection between radio, however, was not such as to free up the frequencies, and the crowding of the radio beginning remained then crystallized forever, together to confusion and overlapping frequencies, regulated by law Mammì 80s, but still pending application.

In 1976 open a radio in Italy had an operation at the limit of legality, though, as shown below, very frequent and likely to expand further. In fact, the year before a state law, n. 103 of the 14/4/1975 (the curious can find the full text via Google on various sites by typing “law 103/1975” ) He had reiterated the state monopoly in broadcasting, in concession to the RAI, reconfirming and then updating the previous legislation dating from 21/2/1938 (Law 24/1938). The novelty is that they were now regulated transmissions from television of foreign nations and which was liberalized cable transmission in Local (which at the time he was ushering in the USA and Northern Europe, where it would then be established, while in Italy it would remain a marginal phenomenon. But for private radio interesting legislative novelty was linked to the magic word “circularity” stated in article 1, first paragraph, the law, a thus reserved to the State Service. “circular broadcast” It could literally mean a 360-degree coverage, or a spread of national type, full-coverage. Appealing to this interpretation of the radios, which of course could not, even wanting, spread on this scale, They opposed it on the head office to the frequent seizure of the equipment operations, on RAI complaint or the Postal Police, regularly emerged victorious.

Note that could also appeal to the alleged unconstitutionality of the law 103, that was contrary to the law 848 of the 4 August 1955 (Ratification and implementation of the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms), one which included international treaties (including slavery, asylum, etc.) and it included them as an integral part of the Italian Constitution. Among them was the prohibition of monopoly on radio and television. Being an international treaty was drawn up in diplomatic language, the French, Article 10, that affects the freedom of radio, however, is easily understood. The result was that the proliferated radio, RAI surrendered gradually, and the Postal Police was limited to repress those that interfered with transmissions of the police or the airport control towers, and everyone was waiting for a new law.

Where previously they transmitted three radios, as Vatican Radio and Radio Montecarlo, Radio San Marino and Radio Koper, now they transmitted over 100 radio, and while the music was broadcast on the radio coming two-three hours a day, the radios covered with music (broadcasts or pre-recorded tapes) also eighty percent of the programming. So a multiplication of music broadcasts, a multiplication of music genres transmitted, a multiplication of the musicians who found an outlet on a few radio, and therefore an increase in the sale of disks, the disk copy, then on tape, in short, the same situation now, with radio instead of Napster or Winmx, cassettes in place of CD-ROM and recorders.

The only difference is that the record sales are down by now 10% year and then increased to an even greater percentage, Theoretically, the music to be transmitted had to be communicated to the authors and publishers companies, to which was to be sent the ladder of each transmission day, and to which the rights to the broadcasts had to be paid.

Of course no free radio dreamed of pouring rights, also because in general were self-financed, and those who worked there, not only he is working for free, but also it contributed to the fixed costs of the radio, who were then only equipment (antenna and other) and cost of local, if it was not hosted by any organization.

In 1976 the Constitutional Court returned to the subject in response to a number of exceptions of unconstitutionality or requests for opinions of magistrates throughout Italy and declared inadmissible, the landmark ruling 202/1976 of the 28 July 1976, parts of laws that forbade the locally broadcast, confirming the broad interpretation of the law 103/1975 and giving the final go to private radio broadcasting in Italy.

This was the so-called “Far-West ether”, tolerated by the governments of the 80, with the ultimate benefit of one private industry group, which has emerged as the only winner from 14 years of poor regulation, and with the subsequent consolidation of the oligopolistic factual situation (exactly the one that was intended to avoid the law 103) with the law 223 of the 6 August 1990, the famous Law Mammì. Moreover also it unenforced to date for the part about the radio, confirming the marginal role that politics and industry attribute to this medium of information and entertainment (but also the general analogue frequency plan has remained stagnant).

In private radio of the years 70 the problem was instead represented by the excessive crowding in large cities and the parallel absence of a frequency plan, since the legislative framework still that of the monopoly times.

A 30 years away, no one thinks to radio as a free radio, but only as commercial radio. And unfortunately just the commercial requirements have leveled the standard against the most common musical tastes, and they have removed any ambition of experimentation.

Source: BroadcastItalia